The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hijjat al-wida’) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage performed by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), in the year 632 CE (10 AH). He would meet the Archangel Jibreel (AS) every Ramadan and read the verses that have been revealed until then. During the 10th year after the emigration, in the month of Ramadan, Jibreel (AS) said that they would read the Quran twice. The Prophet (PBUH) understood that it means his life is coming to an end. The Prophet (PBUH) would usually perform Itiqaaf (retreat to a place for fasting and performing Ibaadah) for ten days in Ramadan but in his last year, he performed Itiqaaf for 20 days.
Surah Nasr was revealed during this period and the Prophet (PBUH) understood that Allah (SWT) was pleased with his work.
“When come the help of Allah, and victory, and when you see the people enter Allah’s Deen in Crowds, Then celebrate the Praise of your Lord, and pray for his Forgiveness: for no doubt He accepts repentance.”
After gaining the impression that his end is approaching, the Prophet (PBUH) decided to perform Hajj and advised his companions to do the same. He began preparing for Hajj and asked everyone to join him. The Prophet (PBUH) set out for the journey in the month of Dhul Qi’dah 26 in 632 CE along with his wives and daughter Fatima (RA), the residents of Madinah, the immigrants, his companions and the tribes that had come to Madinah. He assumed Ihram for Hajj at Zul Hulayfa.
After the end of the Battle of Tabuk, the entire Mecca had embraced Islam and most of the Arabian Peninsula was under the leadership of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) so there was a huge number of attendees. The Prophet (PBUH) reached Makkah on 4th Dhul Hijjah on his camel named Qasva. After performing Tawaaf, he stayed in a tent in the Abtah region. He left Mecca for Mina on 8th of Dhul Hijjah and spent the night there. On 9th Dhul Hijjah after the sunrise, the Prophet (PBUH) set out for Arafat along the Muzdalifah road and spent the night in a tent in Nimra. In the afternoon, he delivered his last speech, the Farewell sermon in the Uranah valley of Arafat to a crowd of over 120,000 pilgrims.
The Farewell Sermon
After praising and thanking Allah (SWT), the Prophet (PBUH) said,
“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest); therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, perform your five daily prayers (salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in zakat (almsgiving). Perform Hajj if you can afford it.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor does a black have any superiority over a white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.